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1. Dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells, as an medication produces effects such as increased heart rate and blood pressure. 2. Serotonin serves as a vasoconstrictor and helps to regulate hemostasis and blood clotting, also as a neurotransmitter. 3. Phenylethylamine functions as a neuromodulator or neurotrasmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. 4. An increase in norepinephrine from the sympathetic nervous system increases the rate of contractions. It underlies the fight-or-flight response, directly increasing heart rate, triggering the release of glucose from energy stores, and increasing blood flow to skeletal muscle. It increases the brain's oxygen supply. 5. Oxytocin causing milk to be 'let down' into subareolar sinuses, from where it can be excreted via the nipple. It causes contractions during the second and third stages of labor. 6. Vasopressin is responsible for increasing water absorption in the collecting ducts of the kidney nephron. Vasopressin increases water permeability of kidney collecting duct. 7. Endorphins have the abilities to produce analgesia and a feeling of well-being.