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Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a revolutionary method invented by Kary Mullis in the 1980s which copies the target sequence defined by a pair of primers exponentially. Can exponential amplification of any random sequence of DNA be achieved in PCR with only single primer?

Hint: Refer the schematic in the diagram that represents randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker technology.

You can substantiate your answer with help of this diagram, if required.


In aqueous solution, almost all D-glucose molecules are in the pyranose form. Other aldoses have a greater proportion of molecules in the open-chain form. D-Glucose may have evolved to be the predominant hexose because it is less likely than its isomers to react with and damage cellular proteins. Explain why D-glucose reacts less than other aldoses with the amino groups of proteins.
In aqueous solution, almost all D-glucose molecules are in the pyranose form. Other aldoses have a greater proportion of molecules in the open-chain form. D-Glucose may have evolved to be the predominant hexose because it is less likely than its isomers to react with and damage cellular proteins. Explain why D-glucose reacts less than other aldoses with the amino groups of proteins.
In a procedure for testing blood glucose, a drop of blood is placed on a paper strip impregnated with the enzyme glucose oxidase and all the reagents necessary for the reaction.
The H2O2 produced causes a color change on the paper that indicates how much glucose is present. Since glucose oxidase is specific for the beta anomer of glucose and doesn’t act on alpha anomer, in spite of this specificity, the reaction is used in a clinical assay for measuring total blood glucose which consists of a mixture of beta D glucose and alpha D glucose. Explain how this assay is effective in measuring total blood glucose

Steroids are recommended for treating the pain resulting from cobra bite. What is the basis of this treatment?


While cobra secretes good amounts of PLA2 as a weapon to kill its prey, most animals like humans do produce PLA2 in their cells. What is the purpose of synthesizing PLA2 in animals?

Cobra bite causes swelling and pain. A fatty acid cleaved off by PLA2 from cell

membranes is the culprit inducing synthesis of molecules that cause this pain and

inflammation. Comment on this fact.


One of the ingredients present in the venom of Indian spectacled cobra, Naja naja is phospholipase A2(PLA2). We have discussed the site of action of PLA2 in a glycerophospholipid. PLA2 from cobra venom thus degrades the glycerophospholipids present in the cell membrane leading to cell lysis releasing its cytoplasmic contents.
In aqueous solution, almost all D-glucose molecules are in the pyranose form. Other aldoses have a greater proportion of molecules in the open-chain form. D-Glucose may have evolved to be the predominant hexose because it is less likely than its isomers to react with and damage cellular proteins. Explain why D-glucose reacts less than other aldoses with the amino groups of proteins.
In a procedure for testing blood glucose, a drop of blood is placed on a paper strip impregnated with the enzyme glucose oxidase and all the reagents necessary for the reaction.
The H2O2 produced causes a color change on the paper that indicates how much glucose is present. Since glucose oxidase is specific for the beta anomer of glucose and doesn’t act on alpha anomer, in spite of this specificity, the reaction is used in clinical assay for measuring total blood glucose which consists of a mixture of beta D glucose and alpha D glucose. Explain how this assay
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