Machialvelli"s idealogy of modern state (800 words)
At the start of the 16th century, we find a very significant element of modern political philosophy, described as modern absolutism. Machiavelli, according to Sabine, is the founder of this absolutism.
He proposed separating religion, morals, and politics. The king has the last say in political issues, and all other centers must bow to political authority.
Both the Renaissance and the Reformation severed the wings of the church and the pope, leaving a void in social and political spheres that were quickly filled by the rise of absolute royal authority.
As a result, absolute royal authority became the norm in European politics. Absolute monarchies, like feudal constitutional monarchies, grew in virtually every region of Western Europe.
Many opponents of Western political philosophy see Machiavelli as a Renaissance kid. According to W. T. Jones, "Machiavelli was a child of Florence and the Renaissance." All of the characteristics of his city and era may be seen in his own personality.”
One significant feature of the Renaissance is that, due to its impact, a man started to evaluate and value everything, particularly politics, in a new light. They also examined ideas such as morality, justice, and religion.
A man was captivated by the church, Pope, and, above all, religion throughout the Middle Ages. He lacked the ability to think for himself. However, the arrival of the Renaissance altered this condition, and a man started to ponder about religion, morals, and so on using his own reason.
Machiavelli embraced it as well. He deviated from the norm. He examined social and political circumstances through the lens of fresh thinking, reason, and perspective. As a result, both ordinary folks and Machiavelli altered their ways of thinking and valuing things.
He believed that man was not formed merely to listen to the church's counsel and follow specific religious beliefs.
He also noticed that the orthodox faith has significantly dwarfed his capacity to think and follow or adapt to reason. This put Italian society in a dangerous position.
The reason for the state is the most revolutionary element of Machiavelli's political ideas. According to Ebenstein, before Machiavelli, all political writings—from Plato and Aristotle through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance—were preoccupied with one fundamental question: the end of the state.
Political power was believed to be a means only—a means to a higher goal like justice, the good life, freedom, or God—Machiavelli overlooks the question of the state's purpose in extra-political terms. He believes that power is a goal in itself, and he focuses his research on the most suited methods to acquiring, retaining, and expanding power.
The truth is that the fundamental idea of Machiavelli's political theory is state power, and the state is practically nothing without it. After studying history, he concluded that only power could rescue Italy. If there is a message in The Prince, the prince's only goal should be to gain the power to make the state self-sufficient in all aspects to compete with other states. This is referred to as the state's rationale.
Machiavelli's two ideas, power politics, and self-sufficiency are inextricably linked. J. In his essay, Machiavelli and the Self-Sufficient State, R. Hale observes: "It is notable how much Machiavelli views politics as a battle—a continuous fight for dominance." In his opinion, all politics are power politics.
After WWII, the whole globe was engulfed in power politics, which meant that most or all of the major nations turned the entire world into a battleground.
The leaders of the superpowers thought that war was the only way to address all of the world's problems. In a similar vein, Machiavelli saw war as the sole tool capable of resolving social and political issues. “Therefore, if a prince wishes to preserve his reign, he must learn how not to be virtuous, and to utilize this or not according to need,” he writes in The Prince.
Everyone recognizes how admirable it is for a prince to keep his word or to be straightforward in his dealings; however, modern experience shows that princes who have achieved great things have been those who have given their word lightly, who have known how to trick men with their cunning, and who, in the end, have defeated those who adhere to honest principles.”
Honesty and scruples have no place in power politics theory. The prince or king of the state's only objective would be to accomplish the goal. This is in the best interests of the state. To make the state strong enough to combat any ill-conceived plan of another state.
Renaissance, Luther, Calvin, and Machiavelli are all nearly modern. The Renaissance gave birth to both democracy and individuality. Despotism, on the other hand, developed alongside them.
The church and the pope were obliged to relinquish their dominance and dictatorial mode of operation. The emergence of a monarchy quickly filled the vacuum left by this.
The domineering authority of monarchs became apparent. Only despotism was able to capture Machiavelli's attention among democracy, individualism, and despotism.