Answer to Question #198905 in Political Science for Sima

Question #198905

1. Define the following diplomatic terms with examples (i). Asylum (ii) Casus-Belli (iii). Process verbal (iv). Ad Referendum. (v). Lesser Passer (vi) Two types of Protocols (vii). Entente (viii). Ex-gracia. (ix). Alter-Nat (x).

2. Discuss stages of negotiation as means of communication in international relations.

Expert's answer

(i). Asylum refers to the protection granted by a state to someone who has left their home country as a political refugee.

(ii) Casus-Belli refers to an act or event that provokes or is used to justify war. It involves direct offenses or threats against the nation declaring war.

(iii). Process verbal refers to a detailed authenticated account drawn up by a magistrate, police officer, or other person having the authority of acts or proceedings done in the exercise of his duty. in a criminal charge, a procès-verbal is a statement of the facts of the case.

(iv). Ad Referendum refers to referral: subject to agreement by another or others.

(v). Lesser Passer refers to a document allowing the holder to pass; a permit. Visa requirements must always be confirmed with local visa offices well in advance of official travel. To be eligible to receive a Laissez-Passer, applicants must be an “official” of the United Nations or related entity or of a Specialized Agency.

(vi) Two types of Protocols - In international politics, the protocol is the etiquette of diplomacy and affairs of state. It may also refer to an international agreement that supplements or amends a treaty. It can either be an international protocol or a national protocol.

(vii). Entente refers to an arrangement or understanding between two or more nations agreeing to follow a particular policy with regard to affairs of international concern. an alliance of parties to such an understanding.

(viii). Ex-Gracia refers to the payment given as a favor or from a sense of moral obligation rather than because of any legal requirement.

(ix). Alter-Nat refers to the practice among diplomats of regulating precedence among powers of equal rank by lot or in a certain regular order. It is used especially when signing of treaties and conventions of giving each power the copy on which it appears at the head of the list of signatories.

2. Discuss stages of negotiation as means of communication in international relations.

There are five collaborative stages of the negotiation process: Prepare, Information Exchange, Bargain, Conclude, and Execute. Stage one involves preparation where a nation Identifies the potential value, begins to understand interests, and develops a fact-base. Stage two of information exchange and validation include Discovering and creating value, assess interests, and building rapport and trust.

Thirdly, A nation has to bargain where it involves creating and distributing value, addressing interests, and making and managing concessions. The next stage a nation has to undertake is Conclude by Capturing value and confirming that interests have been met thank the other nation. Lastly, a nation has to execute what they concluded by expanding value, addressing and hanging interests while strengthening relationships.




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