Types of pollution
i) Land pollution- happens when the soil gets contaminated by chemicals dumped on the ground. The pollution on the ground can seep into the river or groundwater causing a very bad cycle of pollution.
ii) Air pollution- happens when chemicals and noxious gas are suspended into the air.
iii) Noise pollution – It is caused by a loud noise that can damage human ears.
iv) Water pollution- caused by trash and chemicals that get thrown into the ocean. This affects marine life and human life.
Causal factors of pollution
i) Industrial emission- emit of several pollutants in the air like Nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc. that affect the quality of the air.
ii) Transportation- in urban cities, vehicle pollution is a major contributor to air pollution. When a vehicle burns gasoline it emits pollutants in the air; hydrocarbons and other particular matter.
iii) Sewage treatment- after the treatment of sewage, a lot of solid waste is left, which is sent to the landfill site which results in land pollution.
iv) Littering- people just throw garbage on the ground, this results in a major issue; pollution.
Effects of the pollution on the environment and human health
i) Short-term effects of air pollution include; irritation on the throat, eyes, nose and cause upper respiratory infection allergy reactions, nausea, and headache.
ii) Long-term effects include; lung cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, heart disease
iii) Global warming- brought by high emission of CO2 and methane in the atmosphere, mostly produced by industries.
iv) Climate change and acid rain- due to pollution the climate has changed for the worse bring about floods and a rise in the sea level. Gas emitted by power plants, industries, boilers, and transportation is very toxic, when this toxic mix with the water they form acid rain; which is bad for the surface and the environment.
Suggest five ways of addressing the menace in the Agbogbloshie enclave.
i) Recycle and reuse- conserve resources and use them judicially, this will help in reduction in pollution emission.
ii) No to plastic bags- plastic bags take long to decompose, this affects the environment in a bad way, and instead use of the paper bag is better as they decompose easily.
iii) Implementation of afforestation- the planting of trees will help in releasing oxygen and bring more rainfall.
iv) Pick and throw litter in the garbage can to prevent water pollution.
v) Installation of an adequate sound system in hospitals, commercial, and industries to reduce noise pollution.