Answer to Question #23233 in Inorganic Chemistry for aliyu

Question #23233
what is hybridisation ,describe its diagram and name the type of orbital hybrydization /
Expert's answer
In chemistry, hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals to form new hybrid orbitals suitable for the qualitative description of atomic bonding properties. Hybridised orbitals are very useful in the explanation of the shape of molecular orbitals for molecules. It is an integral part of valence bond theory. Although sometimes taught together with the valence shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory, valence bond and hybridization are in fact not related to the VSEPR model. These are the three kinds of hybridization that are important in organic chemistry. The first is the sp3 hybridization that we have already talked about. sp3 hybridization results from the combination of the s orbital and all three p orbitals in the second energy level of carbon. It results in four hybrid orbitals and occurs when a carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms. The geometric arrangement of those four hybrid orbitals is called tetrahedra.
Another kind of hybridization uses the s orbital and two of the p orbitals from the second energy level of carbon to form three hybrid orbitals. This kind of hybridization is called sp2 hybridization. It has three hybrid orbitals and there is also an unchanged p orbital that is not shown here. The geometric arrangement of these three sp2 hybrid orbitals is in a flat plane with 120 degree angles between them. The leftover p orbital lies at a 90 degree angle to the hybrid orbitals. If it had been included in this diagram, its two lobes would be pointing directly at and away from you. This kind of hybridization occurs when a carbon atom is bonded to three other atoms. If it is a very simple molecule with just the carbon atom and the other three atoms, it would be a flat triangular molecule. If this is part of a larger molecule, this part would have a flat triangular shape.

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