Answer to Question #93790 in Molecular Biology for Kylie

Question #93790
3.2 Briefly explain the four levels of protein structure. In your answer refer to a
protein haemoglobin and catabolite gene activator protein where applicable.
Expert's answer

The four levels of protein structure are primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.

Specific order of amino acid linked by peptide bond forms a primary structure.

Polypeptides bend and fold to form a three-dimensional shape that can either look like a spiral (an alpha helix) or a sort of accordion shape (a beta-pleated sheet). These regular structure taken up by these polypeptides form a secondary structure.

Tertiary protein structure describes a final form of a functional protein comprised of its secondary structure components.  Tertiary structures form in relation to their environment, with hydrophobic amino acids on the interior of a protein and hydrophilic ones on the exterior.

The quaternary structure of a hemoglobin molecule includes four tertiary structure protein chains, two of which are alpha helices and two of which are beta-pleated sheets.

catabolite gene activator protein (CAP) is a DNA binding protein involved with the transcription of several genes. It operates in lac operon. CAP can activate or repress transcription initiation upon binding of cAMP. The cAMP-CAP complex binds to promoters on the DNA.

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