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1. Carbohydrate is to glucose as ____.

a. fat is oil

b. DNA is to RNA

c. hydrogen is to oxygen

d. protein is to amino acid

2. One feature of lipids is that these biomolecules ____.

a. include cartilage and chitin

b. are composed of monosaccharides

c. serve as food reserves in many organisms

d. include fats consisting of one fatty acid molecule and three glycerol molecules

Discuss gene expression with respect to energy efficiency to each mechanisms during transcription and translation

You discovered that a species of bacteria can break down StyrofoamTM (polystyrene) products due to an

enzyme it produces, polystyrenase. You wish to study the gene that codes for this enzyme.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

After purifying the gDNA extract, you want to isolate and amplify the polystyrenase gene. You perform PCR

using the appropriate gene-targeted primers. What is the purpose of the following PCR components? Answer

briefly but completely.

a. DNA polymerase isolated from Thermus aquaticus

Answer: __________________________________

b. Deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs)

Answer: __________________________________

c.Forward and reverse primers


A biology class was performing an experiment in the lab. The students had obtained a DNA strand with radioactive thymine. Later as they left the strand in a medium for multiplication, they realized that the radioactivity was observed only in part of the DNA and not all DNA molecules.The process was explained by the teacher as:

what is the role of the 2 metal ions in DNA polymerase

Outline the main concepts of entropy and free energy. [10 marks]

2. Describe photorespiration and how its limitations are imposed on carbon assimilation by

the photosynthetic carbon oxidation cycle in C3 plants. [20 marks]

expression of protein in cells

a)is regulated by genes

b)is regulated by nutrients 

c)is regulated by histone modification

d)is regulated by a combination of factors 

when a DNA mutation occurs in somatic cells of an adult and is not repaired, 

a)the persona's children may inherit the mutation

b)the person may develop cancer 

c)the persona's children will inherit the mutation 

d)the persona's genes will be dysregulated in that cell

Vitamin A as a gene regulator 

a)can cause birth defects when taken in excess before and during pregnancy

b)can cause birth defects when not absorbed enough before and during pregnancy 

c)can cause a reduced immune reaction making infections worse when not absorbed enough by children and adults 

d)all of the above 


a single nucleotide substitution in the DNA code is most likely to

a)change one single amino acid in a protein

b)change a series of amino acids in a protein 

c)lead to the addition of an amino acid to a protein

d)lead to different histone modifications at that site


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