A patient Marina, 27 years old, was diagnosed with cancer of the right breast with metastases in the lymph nodes (stage II). Marina told the doctor that her sister had osteogenic sarcoma for 17 years, and her brother had acute leukemia at the age of 5 years. Marina's mother died of breast cancer several years ago. Marina's estrogen level is within normal limits. It was taken Marina’s blood for the study of leukocyte DNA.
Questions for discussion:
1. What is the possible cause of tumor development?
2. What type of apoptosis failure leads to breast cancer and other cancers?
3. What type of mutation is the most likely for Marina?
a) mutation of the bcl-2 gene
b) mutation of the bcl-x gene
c) mutation of the p53 gene
d) mutation of the gene encoding the epidermal growth factor receptor
e) mutation of the transforming growth factor gene
4. Find the localization of this gene using the OMIM database.
5. What apoptosis genes are under impact of transcription factor p53?
It develops when cells in the body divide and grow at an excessive rate.
Proliferation or downregulate apoptosis.
It is usually most appropriate to cite the actual journal article for the data of interest.
p53 is a DNA-binding transcription factor that activates genes responsible for a cell-cycle checkpoint or apoptosis after exposure to ionizing radiation, UV light, or other DNA-damaging agents