Answer to Question #268738 in Microbiology for sparrow

Question #268738

A group of researchers at the U.S. Department of Agriculture isolate a new bacterium

from the lungs and lymph nodes of several young horses that became ill and died at a

local stable. Prior to death, their symptoms included disorientation and loss of motor

function, so the researchers suspected central nervous system involvement, which was

confirmed by the observation of brain lesions in the dead animals. Based on 16S rRNA

comparisons, the bacterium was distantly related to Neisseria meningitidis, and they

subsequently named it Neisseria equiniae. The researchers believe that N. equiniae may

be responsible for the brain lesions observed in a small percentage of older horses that die

of apparent dementia. What four criteria must be satisfied in order for the researchers to

prove that the brain lesions in these older horses are caused by N. equiniae? Provide at

least three modern molecular experiments that could be performed to satisfy these


Expert's answer

Assessment of body temperature is an essential part of every physical examination. As with all mammalian species, horses normally maintain their core body temperatures within a narrow range despite extremes in environmental conditions.1, 2 The core temperatures may vary by approximately 1°C (2°F) between individuals. In adult horses the normal body temperature ranges from 37.2° to 38.3°C (99.0°–101.0°F), whereas in neonatal foals the temperature tends to be slightly higher, ranging from 37.8° to 38.9°C (100.0°–102.0°F). Diurnal variation of up to 1°C (2°F) may occur, with the low point typically occurring in the morning and the peak in the late afternoon.

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