Answer to Question #217491 in Microbiology for Srikanth Kodamasim

Question #217491
Microorganisms can remain dormant for even 200 years without food or O2 and even some can produce calcium carbonate which is the basis for self-healing concrete concept
Dormant state is normally exhibited by Gram +ve bacteria. What are the biomolecules that differentiate these with Gram -ve bacteria? (7 marks)
Give details on the biomolecular content that can be engineered to make a bacterium to be used in the self-healing concept (8 marks)
When you are engineering multiple microorganisms for a similar output, what kind of species relationship you will consider and explain with rationale?
Expert's answer

Gram-positive bacteria own a thick cell wall comprising of many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by a second lipid membrane containing lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins.

Bacteria-based self-healing concrete is a construction material used to repair cracks in concrete, in which bacteria carriers immobilize the bacterial spores.

When engineering multiple microorganisms for a similar output, a self-healing technique using bacteria can fill the cracks in concrete by inducing calcium carbonate precipitation through biomineralization. The basic mechanism of bacteria-based crack healing happens when the concrete crack occurs. The water will then leak via the formed cracks and the capillary pores of concrete [4 ]. With the presence of water and nutrients inside the concrete matrix, the germination of bacteria will take place, and the limestone produced can fill the cracks.

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