Answer on Human Anatomy and Physiology Question for Sanjukta Ghosh
Portal venous system delivers blood from intestines to the liver where it is processes by the hepatocytes before reaching the systemic circulation. So most of the substances regardless whether this is a nutrient, a drug or a toxin firstly pass through liver and only after that they are transported to the tissues where they are required. In the liver, a part of the drug is neutralized, so it reduces bioavailability.
When drug is administered, for example, intravenously, it fully reaches the systemic circulation. So it has 100% bioavailability.
Therefore, the bioavailability of the drug depends on the route of administration.
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