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Ecology Answers

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Klinotaxis occurs in organisms with receptor cells but no paired receptor organs. The cells for reception are located all over the body, particularly towards the anterior side. The organisms detect the stimuli by turning their head sideways and compare the intensity. When the intensity of stimuli is balanced equally from all sides then the organisms move in a straight line. The movement of blowfly and butterfly larvae clearly demonstrates klinotaxis.

Tropotaxis is displayed by organisms with paired receptor cells. When the stimuli coming from a source are balanced equally the organisms show movement. Because of this, animals are able to move sideways, unlike klinotaxis where the organisms can move only in a straight line. The movement of Grayling butterflies and fish lice clearly demonstrates tropotaxis.

I don't understand the part , because of this the animals are able to move sideways. Could you explain?
Does resource partitioning contradicts Gauses's law?
I was reading Information theory by Eleith, Odum and Golley from different sources, one of which was Funfamentals of ecology by Odum:
... autogenic succession usually begins with an unbalanced community metabolism, where gross production, P, is either greater than or less than community respiration, R, and proceeds towards a more balanced condition, where P=R. The rate of biomass production (B/P ) increases during sucession until a stabilised system is achieved, in which a maximum of biomass (or high information content) and symbiosis between organisms are maintained per unit of available energy flow.
The succession begins with P>R in autotrophic sucession and P<R in heterotrophic sucession.
I have tried to find explanatory texts both in this and other books without any success so my question is how's this balanced state achieved in both types of successions?
Is there any significance of random colonisation model of ecological succession? I find it to be same as tolerance model where the late-successional species is neither inhibited nor fascilitated. Is there any difference between the two?
How does 1st law of thermodynamics apply to an ecosystem, an open system?
I have been reading Odum, it states that it with 2nd law of thermodynamics applies to any ecological system at any level, when Energy is conserved (neither created nor destroyed) only in an isolated system!
What is surrogate species? I was reading this book (pg-16 of link below) and the definition mentioned seem to mean that a surrogate species has the properties of an indicator species, keystone species and an umbrella species! It is a bit strange. Can you explain?

Link:https://books.google.co.in/books?id=oeflCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA16&dq=indicator+species+definition&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=surrogate%20species&f=false
Why is Tiger for e.g Royal bengal tiger considered an umbrella species? How can its conservation inturn protect other species?
When it comes to conservation of endangered animals is there a preference of in situ conservation over ex situ or vice versa? If so why?

I think both have their own benefits like in ex situ conservation supervision of animals is comparatively easy. I can't think of any benefits of in situ though. But I would like to know what is preferred in practice.

Thank you.
What are biodiversity indices? What are the broad categories of biodiversity indices and what falls under them?

Point diversity is biodiversity in a microhabitat or a sample taken from a homogeneous habitat.

What is meant by homogeneous habitat?