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Ecology Answers

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What is surrogate species? I was reading this book (pg-16 of link below) and the definition mentioned seem to mean that a surrogate species has the properties of an indicator species, keystone species and an umbrella species! It is a bit strange. Can you explain?

Link:https://books.google.co.in/books?id=oeflCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA16&dq=indicator+species+definition&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=surrogate%20species&f=false
Why is Tiger for e.g Royal bengal tiger considered an umbrella species? How can its conservation inturn protect other species?
When it comes to conservation of endangered animals is there a preference of in situ conservation over ex situ or vice versa? If so why?

I think both have their own benefits like in ex situ conservation supervision of animals is comparatively easy. I can't think of any benefits of in situ though. But I would like to know what is preferred in practice.

Thank you.
What are biodiversity indices? What are the broad categories of biodiversity indices and what falls under them?

Point diversity is biodiversity in a microhabitat or a sample taken from a homogeneous habitat.

What is meant by homogeneous habitat?
Are the following correct?

1. Biodiversity
It is the variation and variability of organisms within species, between species and between ecosystems.
OR
Biodiversity is the variation and variability of organisms within species and between species in a given area and also the variations(i.e. diversity) in ecosystems.

2. Ecosystem diversity
Is it the diversity of organisms in a particular type of ecosystem over different regions of the world, or, as defined by wikipedia it is the diversity of ecosystems in a given geographical region?
Which organisms are considered the secondary producers of an ecosystem?

Are organisms of the second trophic level e.g herbivores called the secondary producers or any consumer (belonging to any trophic level) termed secondary producers in the sense that they make energy available to the following trophic levels?
What is resource partitioning?
Is 'Resource partitioning,the process of dividing up resources in an ecosystem so that species with similar needs(overlapping ecological NICHE) use the same scarce resources at different times, in different ways or in different places'?(I found this definition in the glossary of a biology book) It is a mechanism that organism with overlapping niches have adopted to coexist?

Can you explain with an example?
Is ecological threshold sometimes called inflection point?
What is ecoline?

I found this definition in a book: It is a spatial environmental factor gradient and plant community gradient considered together.

I found a different definition too, that said it is the rate of genetic change that occurs in an environment due to the merging of different varieties of a plant species.This doesn't make sense to me. One cannot measure the rate of genetic change.

Which one is right?