Explain the characteristics of enzyme and mechanism of its action.
Enzymes are large biomolecules that are responsible for many of the chemical reactions necessary to sustain life. Enzymes are biological catalysts. They accelerate reactions, although they do not change in the reaction. Enzymes are proteins and, therefore, are folded chains of amino acids with a certain form. This form is determined by the sequence of amino acids held together by bonds, for example by hydrogen bonds. Enzymes accelerate the reaction by combining the reagents and reducing the activation energy necessary to initiate the reaction (enzymatic reaction). Characteristics of enzymes are: • Enzymes are highly catalytic and have high specificity. • Absolute specificity when enzymes respond specifically to only one substrate. • Stereospecificity is that enzymes can detect different optical isomers and react only to one type of isomer. • Reaction specific enzymes, these enzymes, as the name implies, react only to specific reactions. • Enzymes of a group are those that catalyze a group of substances containing certain substances. • The activity of the enzyme can be controlled, but the activity of the catalysts cannot be controlled. • All enzymes are proteins. • As proteins, enzymes can be coagulated with alcohol, heat, concentrated acids and alkaline reagents. • At an elevated temperature, the reaction rate proceeds faster. • The reaction rate causing the enzyme is high at optimal temperature. • If the substrate shows a deviation greater than the optimum temperature or pH required for the enzyme to work, enzymes do not work in these conditions. • By increasing the concentration of reagents and substrate, the reaction rate increases until the enzyme becomes a saturated substrate; increasing the amount of enzyme, increases the reaction rate. • Inorganic substances, known as activators, increase the activity of the enzyme. • Competitive inhibitors are substances that reciprocally bind to the active center of the enzyme, which prevents binding of the substrate to the enzyme.