suppose there is a 400kb image (1280x1024). after compression it becomes 190kb (1280x1024). let size of each pixel be 1 byte so how come the size is reduced since both have same resolution???
I know some of the information is lost.
In modern compression algorithms decreasing the volume of an image isn't related with decreasing of an pixel memory size directly. Image compression may be lossy or lossless. Lossless compression is preferred for archival purposes and often for medical imaging, technical drawings, clip art, or comics. This is because lossy compression methods, especially when used at low bit rates, introduce compression artifacts. Lossy methods are especially suitable for natural images such as photographs in applications where minor (sometimes imperceptible) loss of fidelity is acceptable to achieve a substantial reduction in bit rate. The lossy compression that produces imperceptible differences may be called visually lossless.
Methods for lossless image compression are:
& - Run-length encoding – used as default method in PCX and as one of possible in BMP, TGA, TIFF & - DPCM and Predictive Coding & - Entropy encoding & - Adaptive dictionary algorithms such as LZW – used in GIF and TIFF & - Deflation – used in PNG, MNG, and TIFF & - Chain codes
Methods for lossy compression:
& - Reducing the color space to the most common colors in the image. The selected colors are specified in the color palette in the header of the compressed image. Each pixel just references the index of a color in the color palette. This method can be combined with dithering to avoid posterization. & - Chroma subsampling. This takes advantage of the fact that the human eye perceives spatial changes of brightness more sharply than those of color, by averaging or dropping some of the chrominance information in the image. & - Transform coding. This is the most commonly used method. In particular, a Fourier-related transform such as the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is widely used: N. Ahmed, T. Natarajan and K. R. Rao,. "Discrete Cosine Transform,". IEEE Transatctions on Computers, Jan.1974, pp.90-93.. The DCT is sometimes referred to as "DCT-II" in the context of a family of discrete cosine transforms; e.g., see discrete cosine transform. The more recently developed wavelet transform is also used extensively, followed by quantization and entropy coding. & - Fractal compression.