1,List four examples of climate change and briefly explain the effect of climate on conflicts in Africa
2,Explain in details the implications of climate change for Africa’s quest to end hunger in 2030.
1. Climate change is defined as a long-term shift in the average conditions of a region, such as temperature and rainfall. Much of Africa, for example, was covered in glaciers 200 years ago. Today's Africa has a warmer climate with fewer glaciers. The average long-term changes over the entire Earth are referred to as global climate change. Warming temperatures and variations in precipitation, as well as the repercussions of global warming, such as sea level rise, are among them.
· Rising sea level
· Changes in flower and plant blooming times
· Ice melting at a faster rate than usual
· Shrinking mountain glaciers
Climate change is influencing many of Africa's current conflicts. The Darfur conflict is said to be the first wholly caused by climate change; rainfall patterns were 30-75 percent below predicted levels, and the consequent water scarcity was a major factor in the commencement of the civil war. Besides, the Sahel is a region in Africa. Prolonged periods of drought, extensive desertification, and soil erosion prevail across the Sahel, ranging from Senegal in the west to Sudan in the east, resulting in decreased land productivity and changes in grazing patterns, all due to climate change.
2. Droughts, floods, and increasingly severe storms are the principal causes of declining farming productivity and rising hunger in Africa, which has taken up agriculture, food security, and nutrition in recent years. Salt water intrusion is a result of rising sea levels, affecting coastal farming and fresh water supplies, he added. Natural disasters are becoming more violent and frequent, destroying crops and causing damage to production as well as transportation infrastructure on the few tiny islands with coastal farming.
Food insecurity affects about a quarter of the population of least developed nations, with vulnerable groups in Nigeria, Somalia, South Sudan, and Yemen even facing famine, he warned. He went on to say that the vast majority of farmers in these countries are small-scale farmers who are particularly vulnerable to environmental and price shocks. Ethiopia's delegate stated that his country is supporting climate resilient green agriculture to minimize and adapt to the detrimental effects of climate change on agriculture. The goal is to engage local populations in natural resource conservation and management activities such as forestry development and soil and water preservation.