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Answer to Question #46084 in Electric Circuits for deepu singh

Question #46084
Discuss the use of signal generator circuits in the functioning of a CRO .
Expert's answer
The function of vertical deflection system is to provide an amplified signal of the proper level to drive the vertical deflection plates without introducing any appreciable distortion into the system.
The input sensitivity of Many CROs is of the order of a few milli-volts per division and the voltage required for deflecting the electron beam varies from approximately 100 V (peak to peak) to 500 V depending on the accelerating voltage and the construction of the i tube. Thus the vertical amplifier is required to provide this desired gain from milli-volt input to several hundred volt (peak to peak) output. Also the vertical amplifier should not distort the input waveform and should have good response for entire band of frequencies to be measured. The deflection plates of CRO act as plates of a capacitor and when the input signal frequency exceeds over 1 MHz, the current required for charging and discharging of the capacitor formed by the deflection plates increases. So the vertical amplifier should be capable of supplying current enough to charge and discharge the deflection plate capacitor.
As we know that electrical signal is delayed by a certain amount of time when transmitted through an electronic circuitry. In CRO, output signal voltage of the vertical amplifier is fed to the vertical plates of CRT and some of its portion is used for triggering the time base generator circuit, whose output is supplied to the horizontal deflection plates through horizontal amplifier. The whole process, which includes generating and shaping of a trigger pulse and starting of a time-base generator and then its amplification, takes time of the order of 100 ns or so. So the input signal of the vertical deflection plates of a CRT is to be delayed by at least the same or little more amount of time to allow the operator to see the leading edge of the signal waveform under study on the screen. For this purpose, delay line circuit is introduced between vertical amplifier and the plates of CRT.

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