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# Answer to Question #24790 in Abstract Algebra for Alanazi

Question #24790
Q 1) Let I and J be (left or right or two-sided) ideals of a ring R. We define their product IJ to be a set {x1y1 + . . . + xnyn | xi ∈ I, yj ∈ J}. Show that the set IJ is again an (left, right or two-sided) ideal. Moreover, show that (IJ)K = I(JK) for any ideal I, J, K of R Q 2) The composition ′◦′ satisfies the following two axioms 1. (associativity) If f: A → B, g: B → C and h: C → D, then h ◦ (g ◦ f) = (h ◦ g) ◦ f. 2. (identity) For every object A ∈ ob(C) there exists a map 1A : A → A called the identity map for A, such that for every morphism f : A → B we have 1B ◦ f = f ◦ 1A = f Show using the axioms that the identity map is unique for every object. Q3) Check that R[G] satisfies the ring axioms.(R[G] is a group ring of G over R).
1
IJ = {x1y1 + . . . + xnyn | xi &isin; I, yj &isin; J}.

r * (x1y1 + . . . + xnyn) = (r*x1)y1 + . . . + (r*xn)yn &isin; IJ, since r*x_i &isin; I
x1y1 + . . . + xnyn + x&#039;1y&#039;1 + . . . + x&#039;ny&#039;n &isin; IJ

So, if I is left ideal then IJ os left ideal too.
Right case is similar.

Associativity I(JK)=(IJ)K follows from associativity of multiplication and can be proved on monoms, and then be extended to the whole
sums.

2
Suppose object A have two identity maps: 1 and 1&#039;. Then
1=1 * 1&#039; = 1&#039; * 1 =1&#039;, so it is unique.

3
Elements of RG are sums of type x1g1 + ...+ xngn, where g_i are from group G.
If we have element xg, then its opposite will be (-x)g, and 0=0g is zero.
Axioms of abelian group now follows immediately.
Associativity of composition follows from associativity of elements in ring R and group G.
Distributive laws can be proved on monoms.
For example:
ag1(bg2+cg3)=abg1g2+acg1g3=ag1 * bg2 + ag1 * cg3.

So, RG will be a ring.

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Assignment Expert
21.02.13, 17:28

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Alanazi
21.02.13, 17:19

Hi
Thank you so much.