With concrete examples, briefly explain the following forms of participation: Instrumental, and Transformative
Instrumental participation sees community participation being used as a means towards a stated end. More often, it involves the efficient use of skills and knowledge of society members to implement a project. A good example of instrumental participation can be when the government seeks to draw the people to participate in elections. At this point, the massive participation is drawn through increased government responsiveness to citizen demands. Transformative participation, on the other hand, results in the empowerment of the participants. In the long run, it results in structural and institutional alteration leading to marginalization and exclusion. During elections, when the citizens elect fellow citizens into office, the elects are transformed and through them, society can be transformed. However, the elected may not have a positive impact on society, but his social class will change in the long run. Transformation, in this case, may involve security improvement and the low cost of education.