The social disorganization theory focuses on the breakdown in institutions such as the family, school and employment in inner-city neighbourhoods. It is one of the most enduring place-based theories of crime. with the developers being Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay, this theory shifted criminological scholarship from a focus on the pathology of people to the pathology of places. What was ideal in these two theorists is that they attempted to demonstrate that delinquency did not randomly occur throughout the city but was concentrated in vulnerable neighbourhoods, that is in or adjacent to industrial areas. These were the areas where society experienced a constant state of transition and a high rate of residential mobility.