i. Freezing and thawing; At low temperatures, ice forms on rock surfaces and warms up during a sunny day creating instability and fractures on the rock surface.
ii. Erosion- It is a form of physical weathering that occurs when the movement of a force like rain water or flood waters wear down the surface of rocks and carry the worn away parts to other areas. It also occurs with forces like wind, glacier movement, or the action of high tides or waves along coastlines.
iii. Hydrolysis- It occurs when water reacts with compounds in the rock to create other compounds, which leads to softer particles or fractures.