Habitat is a set of specific abiotic and biotic conditions where a given individual, population or species is located. It is part of nature that surrounds living organisms and has a direct or indirect effect on them.
There are two types of habitat: natural and artificial. In turn, the natural habitat is divided into ground-air, soil, water and intraorganism.
The soil is a loose thin surface layer of land in contact with the air. The elements necessary for plant nutrition are concentrated in the upper layers of the soil: nitrogen, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, etc. In the soil air there is an increased content of carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons and water vapor. Chemicals toxic to organisms may also be present in the soil.
The vital activity of organisms in the soil determines its biological characteristics. So, the root system of plants in the process of growth, death and decomposition loosens the soil, creating a certain structure, and provides conditions for the life of other organisms. Burrowing animals mix the soil mass, and after death become a source of organic matter for microorganisms. Soil organisms provide a constant circulation of substances and energy migration, and together with climatic factors, annual cyclic changes in the soil, specific for different latitudes.
Soil microorganisms, plants and animals play an important role in soil formation processes.
Soil inhabitants are conditionally divided into three ecological groups:
1. Microbiota - the main component of the food chain, which is an intermediate link between plant residues and soil animals (green and blue-green algae, bacteria, fungi, etc.).
2. Mesobiota - small insect larvae, ticks, etc.
3. Macrobiota - large insects, worms, etc. Organisms of this group play a positive role in mixing the soil.