1) Robots are used in Manufacturing and many other Industrial contexts.
i) What are the advantages of using Robots (50 words max.) (15 marks)
ii) Explain how feedback and sensors are used to regulate variables
(temperature, pressure, position, etc.) in Engineering. (10 marks)
2) A laser delivers pulses of 2mJ at wavelength 633 nm with a pulse duration of
200 ps. (hint E=h.c/l, with h=6.6 x10-34 J.s and c=3x108 m/s and 1 eV=1.6
i) How far do they travel in 1s? (5 marks)
ii) What is the photon energy in eV? (10 marks)
iii) How many photons are delivered per pulse? (10 marks)
3) A 2 kW kettle, 90% energy efficient is used to boil 1 liter of water from 20ºC to
100ºC. (heat capacity of water is 4180 J/kg.K, latent heat of water is 2256
i) How long does this take? (20 marks)
ii) How long more to completely boil-off the water (5 marks)
4) Boyle’s law describes the relationship between pressure and volume in a gas at constant temperature.
i) Can you guess what is the effect of temperature on volume for a constant
pressure (~50 words) (10 marks)
ii) Can you guess what is the effect of temperature on pressure for a constant
volume (~50 words) (10 marks)
iii) Can you give two practical examples of the processes mentioned in ii) and iii)
(max 50 words, Hint: in the kitchen and in a car) (5 marks)
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