A glass clad fibre is made corw glass refrective index 1.5 and cladding is doped to give a fractional index diffrence 0.0005. Calculate the cladding index and critical internal reflection angle

(a) Differentiate between simple interest and compound interest. Which one commonly
used in personal and professional financial transactions?
(b) Determine the future equivalent of RM 8,000 invested for 20 years if using the
interest rate stated below:
i. 5% simple interest per year.
ii. 5% compound interest per year.
iii. 5% interest per year, continuously compounded.
2
(c) Suppose that certain EOY cash flows are expected to be RM 1,000 for the second
year, RM 2,000 for the third year, and RM 3,000 for the fourth year and that, if
interest is 15% per year, it is desired to find
i. present equivalent value at the beginning of the first year
ii. uniform annual equivalent value at the end of each of the four years

(a) Estimating the future cash flows for feasible alternatives is a critical step in
engineering economy studies. Explain ONE (1) purpose of cost estimation process.
(b) List down TWO (2) sources exist for cost and revenue estimation and provide ONE
(1) example for each sources.

A plant operation has fixed costs of RM 2,000,000 per year, and its output capacity is
100,000 electrical appliances per year. The variable cost is RM 40 per unit.
(a) Based on the information given, how many electrical appliances must be sold before
the plant starting to make a profit if the product sells for RM 90 per unit. Use
breakeven point analysis.
(b) Identify TWO (2) types of fixed costs that the plant should carefully examine to
lower its breakeven point. Explain your reasoning.
(c) Differentiate between direct and indirect costs and give ONE (1) example of indirect
cost

Engineering economy involves the systematic evaluation of the economic merits of proposed
solution to engineering problems.
(a) List down THREE (3) key questions while evaluating alternatives for engineering
problems.
(b) If Ali plans to buy new motorcycle and has made survey from three shops, classify
TWO (2) monetary and TWO (2) non-monetary factor that he need to consider
before buying the motorcycle

Suppose, for a family of logic components, VIL is 0.6V and
VIH is 1.2V. What voltages are required for VOL and VOH to provide a noise
margin of 0.2V?

Suppose a factory has a vat with a sensor that outputs 1
when the vat is empty, a 0 otherwise. The vat also has a pump to empty it, and
a control switch to activate the pump. Devise a circuit that turns the pump on
when the switch is set to activate the pump and the vat is not empty.

Define the Problem: In your own words, what is the goal of the engineering lab?

Ross Recreations Company, LLC operates a summer camp in Montreal, Quebec. The following cost data for a 12-
week summer camp is as below:
Charge per camper =$400/week
Variable cost per camper =$220/week
Fixed costs =$240,000 per summer season
Capacity per week =200 campers
Determine the following:
a. the total number of campers to breakeven for the season
b. the profit if the camp is operated at 90% capacity
c. the additional profit that can be made if a discount of $100 per week is given for another 10 campers

Kal Tech Engineering Inc. manufactures video games for ‘The Play Station’. Variable costs are estimated to be $20
per unit and fixed costs are $10,875. The demand to price relationship for this product is Q = 1,000 - (4 × P) where
P is the unit sales price of the game and Q is the demand in number of units.
a. Find the breakeven quantity (or quantities).
b. What is the company's maximum possible revenue?
c. What profit would the company obtain by maximizing its total revenue?
d. What is the company's maximum possible profit?