7. Design 4 to 1 multiplexer using the design procedure :
8. Design 2 to 4 decoder
9. Design 4 bit comparator:
10. Design 1 bit ALU:
11. What is the difference between a combinational circuit and sequential circuit? Give example of each.
12. Describe the general setup for an arduino board when used to design a digital system. [8marks]
13. Use K-Map to Minimize the following boolean function- [10marks] F(A, B, C, D) = Σm(0, 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 15)
Design of multiplexer
A multiplexer is a combinational circuit with a maximum of 2n data inputs, 'n' selection lines, and a single output. One of these data inputs will be connected to the production based on the value of selection lines.
Like the multiplexer circuit, the decoder is not limited to a single address line and hence can have more than two outputs (with two, three, or four address lines). The decoder circuit can decode a binary number of 2, 3, or 4 bits and up to 4, 8, or 16 time-multiplexed signals.
This circuit acts as a decoder, taking an n-bit binary number and producing an output on one of the 2n output lines. As a result, the number of addressing i/p lines and the number of data o/p lines is often defined. Two 2-4 line circuits, a 3-8 line circuit, or a 4-16 line decoder circuit are examples of typical decoder ICs. The 4-10 line decoders, intended to convert a Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) input to a 0-9 range output, are an exception to the circuit's binary nature.
If you use this circuit as a decoder, you should add data latches at the o/ps to hold each signal while sending the others.
A "4-bit magnitude comparator" is a "comparator" that compares two binary integers, each with four bits. It has eight inputs for two four-bit values and three outputs for less than, equal to, and greater than between two binary numbers.
This schematic depicts the circuit for a 4-BIT COMPARATOR.
Arithmetic logic units (ALUs) are digital circuits that conduct arithmetic and logic operations. It is the essential building component of a computer's central processing unit (CPU). ALUs on modern CPUs are extremely powerful and complicated. To explain the notion, consider an essential 1 bit ALU.
ALU (Arithmetic and Logical Unit) is a gadget that can execute the following operations:
Basic ALU design: addition ANDing ORing
A combinational circuit is a sort of circuit in which the output is independent of time and solely depends on the input present at the moment. On the other hand, a sequential course is a form of the circuit in which the output is dependent not only on the current input but also on the preceding output.
The list of parts concerning the above figure.
1. USB type B female port connects the board with a computer for programming and serial communication. It is also used to power the board from the computer.
2. This is a female DC jack. The Arduino Uno board can be powered by a DC adapter of voltage range 7v to 12 volts through this jack
3. This is the crystal for the oscillator circuit. The oscillator circuit produces 16 MHz square waves, which is used for timing for the microcontroller on the board.
4. These are indication LEDs for TX and RX lines which are part of serial communication
5. Digital pin port. These are the digital input-output pins.
6. Power pins. this includes a 3.3v regulated supply onboard, a 5V supply for peripherals and sensors connected to the board, and Gnd pins.
7. Analog IO (Input and Output) pins. These are used to read or provide analog voltages from and to the sensors, respectively
8. Push button for reset. When you press this button, the microcontroller gets reset.
9. This is mega 16U2 microcontroller. This IC or chip itself is a microcontroller. But on the microcontroller is used as a bridge between the atmega 328p microcontroller on the board and the computer for serial communication.
10. This is the onboard voltage regulator. When we power the Arduino from the DC power jack, this converts the input supply to a 5V regulated supply that the microcontroller can use.
ATMEGA328P: This is the Brain of the Arduino Uno board. It is the microcontroller that is present on the board. The entire board is made to make it easy for beginners to programming this microcontroller.
I am setting up Arduino Board for a digital system.
It is straightforward to use Arduino Boards. Just connect the board to the computer using USB-B to USB-A type connector, which will be provided along with the board. Now open the Arduino IDE on the computer and open the new file. Now open the tools menu and choose the board which you are using. Then go to the port, and when you connect your board, it will show up as COM16 or COM12 or something like that. This is used when you have multiple panels connected to the computer, and you want to communicate with one of the boards. In this case, we need to choose between the boards. In case of only one board, most of the time the IDE recognizes the port automatically.