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charging and discharging characteristics of DC

(a) Here is the information about the circuit.

Capacitor = 100 nF , Resistor = 47 kΩ ,Supply voltage = 5 V

Charging characteristic for a series capacitive circuit:

v=v(1 − e−t/RC)

Investigate what the other terms in this expression mean.

Calculate the time constant for the circuit.

Use a spreadsheet to plot the charging curve over the range 0 to

20 ms (milliseconds).

Investigate the meaning of ‘time constant’ and from your graph

estimate a value. Compare this with your calculated one.

Differentiate the charging equation and find the rate of change of

voltage at 6 ms.

From your graph measure the gradient at 6 ms and compare this with

the calculated value.

(b) Now investigate the discharging characteristic of the circuit but with a 22 kΩ resistor

fitted.

Calculate and estimate the rate of change of voltage when t = T.

(a) Here is the information about the circuit.

Capacitor = 100 nF , Resistor = 47 kΩ ,Supply voltage = 5 V

Charging characteristic for a series capacitive circuit:

v=v(1 − e−t/RC)

Investigate what the other terms in this expression mean.

Calculate the time constant for the circuit.

Use a spreadsheet to plot the charging curve over the range 0 to

20 ms (milliseconds).

Investigate the meaning of ‘time constant’ and from your graph

estimate a value. Compare this with your calculated one.

Differentiate the charging equation and find the rate of change of

voltage at 6 ms.

From your graph measure the gradient at 6 ms and compare this with

the calculated value.

(b) Now investigate the discharging characteristic of the circuit but with a 22 kΩ resistor

fitted.

Calculate and estimate the rate of change of voltage when t = T.

calculate the factor of safety in operation for a component subjected to combined direct and shear loading against given failure criteria

assume that the body can be

modeled as a simple resistive element. Assuming the

electrodes are identical, draw the electrical circuit model

of the impedance seen by the impedance measurement

system. Find an equation of the impedance as a function

of s (recall that a resistor of value R has an impedance ZR

= R; a capacitor of value C has an impedance ZC = 1/(sC)).

modeled as a simple resistive element. Assuming the

electrodes are identical, draw the electrical circuit model

of the impedance seen by the impedance measurement

system. Find an equation of the impedance as a function

of s (recall that a resistor of value R has an impedance ZR

= R; a capacitor of value C has an impedance ZC = 1/(sC)).

In the optical communication systems that are in operation today, one uses laser diodes (LD) with λ0≈1550 nm having a spectral width of about 2 nm. [ Dm = 21.5 (ps/km-nm)] Thus, for a 1-km length of the fiber find the material dispersion τm

An electromechanical voltmeter ( range 0-100V) with zero error after calibration has a pointer bias of + 0.5V ( due to transportation). a) If the voltmeter reads 80V what is the absolute error (if such), of measurement with the voltmeter? b)What are the realtive and reduced errors ( if such)?

if C2 went short circuit explain how this would affect the output on the audio amplifier

How can I show that:

1 - the observable part of a controllable system is controllable?

2 - the controllable part of an observable system is observable?

1 - the observable part of a controllable system is controllable?

2 - the controllable part of an observable system is observable?

On the attached graph paper, sketch the Bode magnitude and phase plots of the following transfer function:

Phase Modulation

a) Calculate the following parameters for a Phase Modulator which has a carrier frequency of 10 kHz and a modulating data rate of 3 kHz:

i. Carrier time period:

ii. Modulating data time period:

iii. Baud rate:

iv. Upper sideband:

v. Lower sideband:

vi. Bandwidth:

Note: show all calculations used.

b) Use Labview to build a Phase Modulator. The sinusoidal carrier signal should be adjustable up to 10 kHz and the amplitude adjustable to 5 volts, using a “simulate signal” express vi.

The modulating input should be a simulate signal vi configured as a square wave in order to provide digital modulating data. The square wave frequency should be adjustable to 5000 Hz and its amplitude adjustable to 5 volts.

The output should be displayed in the time and frequency domains using suitably configured and labelled waveform graphs. Ensure the Front Panel Layout conforms to proper HMI design guidelines.

Provide screenshots of the front panel which clearly display Phase Modulation in operation using the digital modulation data generated. Explain in your own words the displays provided.

c) Use the Labview circuit to verify the calculations in part (a). Provide screenshots with explanations to confirm the results. Explain any discrepancies.Convolve the following two sequences

a) Calculate the following parameters for a Phase Modulator which has a carrier frequency of 10 kHz and a modulating data rate of 3 kHz:

i. Carrier time period:

ii. Modulating data time period:

iii. Baud rate:

iv. Upper sideband:

v. Lower sideband:

vi. Bandwidth:

Note: show all calculations used.

b) Use Labview to build a Phase Modulator. The sinusoidal carrier signal should be adjustable up to 10 kHz and the amplitude adjustable to 5 volts, using a “simulate signal” express vi.

The modulating input should be a simulate signal vi configured as a square wave in order to provide digital modulating data. The square wave frequency should be adjustable to 5000 Hz and its amplitude adjustable to 5 volts.

The output should be displayed in the time and frequency domains using suitably configured and labelled waveform graphs. Ensure the Front Panel Layout conforms to proper HMI design guidelines.

Provide screenshots of the front panel which clearly display Phase Modulation in operation using the digital modulation data generated. Explain in your own words the displays provided.

c) Use the Labview circuit to verify the calculations in part (a). Provide screenshots with explanations to confirm the results. Explain any discrepancies.Convolve the following two sequences

Phase Modulation

a) Calculate the following parameters for a Phase Modulator which has a carrier frequency of 10 kHz and a modulating data rate of 3 kHz:

i. Carrier time period:

ii. Modulating data time period:

iii. Baud rate:

iv. Upper sideband:

v. Lower sideband:

vi. Bandwidth:

Note: show all calculations used.

a) Calculate the following parameters for a Phase Modulator which has a carrier frequency of 10 kHz and a modulating data rate of 3 kHz:

i. Carrier time period:

ii. Modulating data time period:

iii. Baud rate:

iv. Upper sideband:

v. Lower sideband:

vi. Bandwidth:

Note: show all calculations used.