Consider a pile group consisting of three piles arranged at the vertices of an equilateral triangle. The total load S is initially distributed evenly over the three piles (each pile carries initially S/3). S is assumed to follow the normal distribution with mean value S and coefficient of variation 30%. The capacity of each pile is also assumed to follow the normal distribution with mean value 25/3 and coefficient of variation 20%. When the first pile fails in this group, its entire load of S/3 is transferred to one of the two surviving piles (the other surviving pile gets no additional load). When the second pile fails, its entire load is transferred to the last surviving pile. Compute the probability of failure of this pile group.
The properties that need to be considered by designers when specifying steel construction products are:
For design, the mechanical properties are derived from minimum values specified in the relevant product standard. Weldability is determined by the chemical content of the alloy, which is governed by limits in the product standard. Durability depends on the particular alloy type - ordinary carbon steel, weathering steel or stainless steel .