Answer to Question #194996 in Civil and Environmental Engineering for ajit gurung

Question #194996

explain various obstacles in chaining and ranging?

Expert's answer

Type # 1. Chaining Free, Vision Obstructed:

The ends of the lines are not intervisible in this form of barriers, such as raising terrain, a slope, or a jungle interfering.

Two scenarios could occur in this situation:

All line ends can be visible from some intermediate point on the line, such as a slope. This type of barrier can be easily overcome using reciprocal ranging and the stepping method of chaining to calculate length.

(ii) In certain cases, such as in a jungle, neither end can be visible from any intermediate point. This type of barrier can be overcome using the "random line approach."

Type # 2. Chaining Obstructed, Vision Free:

A sheet of water, whose diameter in the measuring direction exceeds the length of the chain or tape, is a common obstacle of this kind. The task is to calculate the distance between two suitable points on the chain line on each side of the barrier.

Two scenarios could occur:

(a) Where the barrier, such as a pond or a thorny hedge, maybe chained over.

(b) Where the barrier, such as a river, cannot be chained across.

Type # 3. Chaining and Vision Both Obstructed:

A house is a good example of this kind of barrier. In this case, the challenge entails extending the line past the obstruction and determining its distance.

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