Answer to Question #121348 in Civil and Environmental Engineering for muel

Question #121348
Distinguish between the categories of irrigation.
Expert's answer

Surface irrigation is where water is distributed over and across land by gravity, no mechanical pump involved while in Localized irrigation water is distributed under low pressure, through a piped network and applied to each plant.

Drip irrigation is a type of localized irrigation in which drops of water are delivered at or near the root of plants. In this type of irrigation, evaporation and runoff are minimized while sprinkler irrigation water is distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns from a central location in the field or from sprinklers on moving platforms.

Center pivot irrigation is where water is distributed by a system of sprinklers that move on wheeled towers in a circular pattern. This system is common in flat areas of the United States while lateral move irrigation is where water is distributed through a series of pipes, each with a wheel and a set of sprinklers, which are rotated either by hand or with a purpose-built mechanism. The sprinklers move a certain distance across the field and then need to have the water hose reconnected for the next distance. This system tends to be less expensive but requires more labor than others.

Sub-irrigation is where water is distributed across land by raising the water table, through a system of pumping stations, canals, gates, and ditches. This type of irrigation is most effective in areas with high water tables while manual irrigation water is distributed across land through manual labor and watering cans. This system is very labor intensive.

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