Answer on Macroeconomics Question for arash
Within the broader domain of price differentiation, a commonly accepted classification dating to the 1920s is:
personalized pricing (or first-degree price differentiation) — selling to each customer at a different price; this is also called one-to-one marketing. The optimal incarnation of this is called perfect price discrimination and maximizes the price that each customer is willing to pay, although it is extremely difficult to achieve in practice because the "brain-scan technology required to determine the precise willingness to pay of each customer has not yet been developed"
group pricing (or third-degree price differentiation) — dividing the market in segments and charging the same price for everyone in each segment. This is essentially a heuristic approximation that simplifies the problem in face of the difficulties with personalized pricing. A typical example is student discounts.
product versioning or simply versioning (or second-degree price differentiation) — offering a product line by creating slightly different products for the purpose of price differentiation, i.e. a vertical product line. Another name given to versioning is menu pricing.
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