In addition to 20-42% water, toothpastes are derived from a variety of components. There are plenty of chemicals in toothpaste. There are seven major chemicals. These chemicals are fluoride, antibacterial agents, desensitizing agents, anti-tarter agents, sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), enzymes, and xylitol. These are the chemicals that are used to make up toothpaste. Each of these chemicals has its purpose. Fluoride protects and strengthens teeth. Antibacterial agent controls plaque. Desensitizing agents and anti-tarter reduces the discomfort of tooth sensitivity. Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) removes plaque from teeth. Enzymes kill bacteria in your mouth. The xylitol is a sweetener, but without sugar. These are the jobs of the seven major chemicals.