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Answer to Question #52301 in Other Chemistry for Andres

Question #52301
(69)Write an abbreviated, balanced equation for the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP.
(70)Where do the complex biomolecules your body degrades during catabolism come from?
(71)Compare and contrast catabolism and anabolism.
(72)Describe the nitrogen cycle in your own words.
(73)What is the source of raw materials used in anabolic reactions?
(74)What is meant by industrial nitrogen fixation? What is produced during this process?
Understanding Concepts
(75)Some experts recommend that complex carbohydrates provide 50–55% of dietary Calories. What is the relationship between energy production and complex carbohydrates?
(76)The formula for palmitic acid is CH3(CH2)14CO2H. A popular soap is mostly sodium palmitate. Draw a structural formula for sodium palmitate.
(77)Why are the hydrophilic heads located on the outsides of the cell membrane?
(78)Consider the following sequence of DNA:
GCC-CCA-ACG-TTA.
a. Using the code words for amino acids in Table 24.2 on page 781, write the amino acid sequence formed by translation of the DNA sequence into a peptide.Hint
b. What amino acid sequence would result from the substitution of adenine (A) for the second cytosine (C)?Hint
(79)Identify or classify each of the following biological molecules.
a.

b.

c.

(80)Use Table 24.2 on page 781 to write a base sequence for DNA that codes for the tripeptide Ala—Gly—Ser. Why might your answer be different from the answers of your classmates?
(81)A segment of a DNA strand has the following base sequence: CGATCCA. Write the base sequence that would be found on the other strand in the double helix.
(82)Which type of monomer produces each of the following polymers?
a. protein
b. polysaccharide
c. nucleic acid
(83)What is one function of membrane proteins?
(84)Does every code word in DNA specify an amino acid in protein synthesis? Explain.
(85)What are some of the outcomes of recombinant DNA research?
(86)Why is it necessary to breathe deeply during vigorous exercise?
(87)The complete oxidation of glucose releases 2.82 × 103 kJ/mol of energy, and the formation of ATP from ADP requires 30.5 kJ/mol. What percent of the energy released in the complete -oxidation of glucose is captured in the formation of ATP?
(88)An average adult expends about 8400 kJ of energy every day. How many moles of ATP must be converted to ADP to provide this amount of energy?
(89)Why can’t humans digest cellulose, considering that it is made of the same monomers as starch?
(90)How is an enzyme-substrate complex formed in the enzyme’s active site?
(91)What role do coenzymes play in metabolism?
(92)Suggest a reason why prokaryotic cells are thought to be more ancient than eukaryotic cells.
(93)What is the oxidation state of iron in each of the following?
a. normal hemoglobin
b. methemoglobon
What is the consequence of this change in oxidation state?
(94)What are the possible consequences of an error in DNA sequence?
(95)Explain why photosynthesis might be considered the most important chemical process on Earth.
(96)Describe the differences among monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Give examples of each type of carbohydrate.
(97)Describe how amino acids join to form a peptide bond.
(98)What is base-pairing? How does base-pairing relate to the structure of DNA?
Critical Thinking
(99)You may know that freshly picked corn is sweeter than corn that has been picked and stored for several days. This is because the stored corn contains less sugar than the freshly picked corn. About half of the sugar in fresh-picked corn has been converted to starch only one day after the corn has been picked. The sweetness of corn can be preserved by “blanching” the ears—dipping the ears of corn into boiling water for a few minutes, then cooling them in cold water. Corn that has been blanched and then frozen maintains its sweetness for a long time. Propose a biochemical reason why blanching corn maintains its sweetness.
(100)Interpret this statement: “Carbon dioxide is an energy-poor molecule, but glucose is an energy-rich molecule.”
(101)In the DNA double helix, where are the base pairs located in relation to the backbone structure: inside the double helix, or outside the double helix? What must happen before the protein-making machinery of the cell can “read” the code words formed by the DNA bases?
(102)Which type of gene mutation do you think will do more damage to an organism: a substitution mutation in which one base is substituted for another base, or an addition mutation in which a base is added to a sequence of bases? Explain.
(103)Suggest a reason why a bean plant might not grow well if planted in sterilized soil.
(104)What class of polymer is formed from each of the following monomers?
a. amino acidsHint
b. monosaccharidesHint
c. nucleotidesHint
(105)Complete the following equation by drawing the structural formulas of the products.

Concept Challenge
(106)Compare the structure of a DNA nucleotide with an RNA nucleotide.
(107)Write a possible DNA sequence that codes for a polypeptide with the following amino acids: histidine-cysteine-glycine-arginine-proline. Is it possible for a mutation to occur in which there is a substitution of one of the last three bases with no effect on the amino acids present in the chain?
(108)Describe the structural features all amino acids have in common. What structural features differ among the amino acids?
(109)Using structural formulas, write a chemical equation for the formation of a dipeptide from two amino acids. What functional group does the reaction create?
(110)Explain why cell growth stops when the dietary intake of nutrients is insufficient.
(111)The following compound is hydrolyzed by boiling with sodium hydroxide. What are the saponification products?

(112)What causes the spontaneous formation of a lipid bilayer?
(113)Peptide chains fold and bend into three-dimensional shapes. Suggest how a peptide chain is held in this 3-D shape.
(114)A sequence of nine bases in a gene codes for the amino acid sequence Trp-Met-Met. What is the sequence of bases in this DNA fragment? Use Table 24.2 on page 781 to help you. Could you determine the base sequence for certain if the amino acid sequence were Trp-Met-Leu? Why or why not?
Cumulative Review
(115)Describe two factors that cause real gases to depart from the ideal gas law. (Chapter 14)
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