Answer to Question #45746 in Organic Chemistry for VISHWANATHAN
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast with "soft water").
Hard water is formed when water percolates through deposits of calcium and magnesium-containing minerals such as limestone,
chalk and dolomite.
When water passes through or over deposits such as limestone, the levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3
ons present in the water can greatly increase and cause the water to be classified as hard water. This term results
from the fact that calcium and magnesium ions in water combine with soap molecules, making it “hard” to get suds.
To tal Hardness mg/L as CaCO3
Very hard >180
Hardness of bore water <200 mg/L
Hardness of seawater is 6,000 mg/L or more.
Scientists have found several sources of salt.
One of them - is the soil. When rainwater seeps through soil and rocks,
t dissolves tiny particles of minerals, including salt and their constituent chemical elements.
Then the water flows carry them into the sea. This process is called erosion. Of course, the content of salt in the fresh water is very low, so it is impossible to determine the taste.
Another source - salt-forming minerals in the depths of the earth's crust under the ocean floor.
Water seeps through cracks in the crust, very hot and is thrown back, rich in minerals dissolved in it.
Hydrothermal vents - some of them form a deep-sea geysers - spew the resulting mixture into the sea.
During inverse process submarine volcanoes emit Ocean huge amount of hot rocks,
and thus the chemical elements into the water. Another source of replenishment
Sea minerals - the wind that carries the fine particles from the land into the sea.
With all these processes sea water contains almost all known chemical elements.
But the most common salt - sodium chloride, or common salt.
It is 85 per cent of total dissolved salts in seawater and that it gives it a salty taste.
Most fish and aquatic organisms live in waters with hardness between 15 and 200 mg/L.
In waterbodies with hardness less than 15 mg/L or greater than 500 mg/L fish reproduction may be limited.
Drinking water with hardness greater than 350 mg/L can be harmful to humans.
Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health,
but can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water hardness
is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles water.
In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack of suds formation when soap is agitated in water,
and by the formation of limescale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever water hardness is a concern, water softening
is commonly used to reduce hard water's adverse effects.
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