Answer to Question #191056 in Organic Chemistry for hevi

Question #191056

Compare the mechanisms for addition and substitution reactions of benzene. 


1
Expert's answer
2021-05-10T01:51:08-0400

Friedel-Crafts reaction

An alkyl group can be added to a benzene molecule by an electrophile aromatic substitution reaction called the Friedel‐Crafts alkylation reaction. One example is the addition of a methyl group to a benzene ring.The electrophile attacks the π electron system of the benzene ring to form a nonaromatic carbocation.


Sulfonation of Benzene

Sulfonation is a reversible reaction that produces benzenesulfonic acid by adding sulfur trioxide and fuming sulfuric acid. The reaction is reversed by adding hot aqueous acid to benzenesulfonic acid to produce benzene.


Chlorination of benzene

As a chlorine molecule approaches the benzene ring, the delocalized electrons in the ring repel electrons in the chlorine-chlorine bond. It is the slightly positive end of the chlorine molecule which acts as the electrophile. The presence of the aluminum chloride helps this polarization.


Hydrogenation benzene

Hydrogenation is an addition reaction in which hydrogen atoms are added all the way around the benzene ring. These reactions destroy the electron delocalisation in the original benzene ring, because those electrons are being used to form bonds with the new hydrogen atoms.


Need a fast expert's response?

Submit order

and get a quick answer at the best price

for any assignment or question with DETAILED EXPLANATIONS!

Comments

No comments. Be the first!

Leave a comment

Ask Your question

LATEST TUTORIALS
New on Blog
APPROVED BY CLIENTS