four differences between ionic and covalent compounds, including reference to the role played by the kind of bonding
- Ionic compounds forms when an electron is transferred from a metal to a non-metal, where the electronegativity is much higher in one atom than the other. A covalent compounds forms when two non-metals transfer an electron to each other, where the electronegativity is similar between them, so neither atom gains or loses an electron. - Ionic compounds have much higher melting and boiling points than covalent compounds, due to their strong force of attraction. - Ionic compounds are crystalline solids made of ions, whereas covalent compounds are made of molecules and can be a gas, liquid or solid. - Covalent compounds is poor electrical conductors in all phases, while ionic compounds are good conductors when melted. For examples of covalent compounds: hydrogen chloride and carbon dioxide; and examples of ionic compounds: sodium bromide and potassium chloride.