Answer to Question #54382 in Inorganic Chemistry for Amit
Atoms of the first period elements (H and He) have only one shell and one orbital – s-orbital. First period includes only 2 elements.
Atoms of the second period elements (e.g., Li, C, O) have 2 shells and 2 orbitals – s-orbital and p-orbital. Second period have 8 elements.
Atoms of the third period elements (e.g., Na, Al, S) have 3 shells and 3 orbitals – s-, p- and d-orbital. Third period have 8 elements too.
But elements of fourth period have atoms with 4 shells and 4 types of orbitals – s-, p-, d- and f-orbitals. There are 18 elements in 4 and 5 periods. And so on.
Why electrons form d- or f-subshell instead of occupy the next shell? Because they do not have enough energy to move to the next shell, as it has higher energy.
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