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Answer to Question #53278 in Inorganic Chemistry for manisha

Question #53278
explain electronegativity. what does its mean that nitrogen(N) is less electronegative than F .?And how we come to know that particular element is more electronegative or less?
Expert's answer
Electronegativity is an ability of atom to attract electron either electron density towards itself upon formation of bond with the second atom. An electron density in X-Y pair of atoms is shifted or is located closer to X atom if it has the higher electronegativity than Y atom.
The nitrogen is less electronegative than F means that for N-F bonds, electron density made by valence electrons is closer to the F atom resulting in the negative charge on it.
To find the Electronegativity for the particular element, there is a table containing corresponding data. However, we can use periodic table and the rules about electronegativity to estimate, which say:
1) Electronegativity increases from left to the right side in the period;
2) it decreases from the top to the down in the main group;
3) The most electronegative elements are non-metals (halogens) and the less ones are metals.

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Assignment Expert
21.07.15, 14:23

Dear manisha,
We are glad to help you. Moving from the left to the right of the periodic table, elements of one period get more protons. It means that elements have more positive charge in the nucleus. The increase of positive charge across a period exerts an increasing force of attraction on the electron orbitals. This is why the electronegativity increases from left to right.

19.07.15, 09:01

expert, i can't understand the line that you wrote while giving the reason for increase in electronegativity in period i.e more positive charges in atom determine the strength of the interaction with negative electrons.
please explain it again in detail.

Assignment Expert
09.07.15, 10:17

Dear manisha!
The reason of increase in electronegativity in period is the increase of proton number in atom: more positive charges in atom determine the strength of the interaction with negative electrons.
The decrease of electronegativity in group is caused with the increase of distance between nucleus and electron determined with the electron shield of atom.
The most electronegative atom is fluorine. So, it is easy to analyze electronegativity of other atoms using periodic laws.

08.07.15, 20:25

what are the reasons of increase in electronegativity in period....and also for decrease in group .Why this is so?

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