What are the four main differences between covalent bonding and Ionic bonding?
1. A covalent bond is formed between the atoms of nonmetals, and an ionic bond is formed between the atoms of metals and nonmetals.
2. In an ionic bond, the electronegative element(usually a non-metal) completely attracts the total electron pair, while in a covalent bond, it only slightly shifts to a more electronegative one.
3. The ionic bond is non-directional and unsaturated, that is, the molecules formed by the ionic bond lose the concept of valence, the positive ion is attracted to an infinite number of negative ions in all directions, and vice versa. Thus, the number of bonds formed by each ion is unlimited. In a covalent bond, there are strict valence limits for each atom.
4. The energy of covalent bonds is small, so the substances formed by this type of bond are low-melting, of small hardness, many are soluble in water if the bond is polar. The energy of the ionic bond is very high, so ionic compounds are crystalline substances with high temperatures