With reference to the group 14 (Group IV) elements (C to Pb), explain the following
A : Catenation
B : Inert pair effect
In chemistry, catenation is the bonding of atoms of the same element into a series, called a chain. A chain or a ring shape may be open if its ends are not bonded to each other, or closed if they are bonded in a ring. The words to catenate and catenation reflect the Latin root catena, "chain".
The inert-pair effect is the tendency of the two electrons in the outermost atomic s-orbital to remain unshared in compounds of post-transition metals. ... As a result, the inert pair of ns electrons remains more tightly held by the nucleus and hence participates less in bond formation.