Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gas phase. The surrounding gas must not be saturated with the evaporating substance. When the molecules of the liquid collide, they transfer energy to each other based on how they collide with each other. When a molecule near the surface absorbs enough energy to overcome the vapor pressure, it will escape and enter the surrounding air as a gas When evaporation occurs, the energy removed from the vaporized liquid will reduce the temperature of the liquid, resulting in evaporative cooling.
Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation. Distillation may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components in the mixture. In either case, the process exploits differences in the relative volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process, not a chemical reaction.
Filtration is a process used to separate solids from liquids or gases using a filter medium that allows the fluid to pass through but not the solid. The term "filtration" applies whether the filter is mechanical, biological, or physical. The fluid that passes through the filter is called the filtrate. The filter medium may be a surface filter, which is a solid that traps solid particles, or a depth filter, which is a bed of material that traps the solid.
Decantation is a process to separate mixtures by removing a liquid layer that is free of a precipitate, or the solids deposited from a solution. The purpose may be to obtain a decant (liquid free from particulates) or to recover the precipitate. Decantation relies on gravity to pull precipitate out of the solution, so there is always some loss of product, either from the precipitate not fully falling out of the solution or from liquid remaining when separating it from the solid portion.
Crystallization or crystallisation is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal. Some of the ways by which crystals form are precipitating from a solution, freezing, or more rarely deposition directly from a gas.