The transition metal organometallic compounds exhibit diverse structural variations that manifest in different chemical properties. Many of these transition metal organometallic compounds are primarily of interest from the prospectives of chemical catalysis. Unlike the main group organometallic compounds, which use mainly ns and np orbitals in chemical bonding, the transition metal compounds regularly use the (n−1)d, ns and np orbitals for chemical bonding. Partial filling of these orbitals thus render these metal centers both electron donor and electron acceptor abilities, thus allowing them to participate in σ-donor/π-acceptor synergic interactions with donor-acceptor ligands like carbonyls, carbenes, arenes, isonitriles and etc.
The 18-valence electron (VE) rule states that thermodynamically stable transition metal compounds contain 18 valence electrons comprising of the metal d electrons plus the electrons supplied by the metal bound ligands. The counting of the 18 valence electrons in transition metal complexes may be obtained by following either of the two methods of electron counting, (i). the ionic method and (ii). the neutral method.
Total = 18e