Examine the differences between DNA and RNA. Explain why DNA is the most favorable molecule for genetic material and how RNA compares to it in this respect.
DNA and RNA are the molecules of cell genetic material with differences in the structure, localization and functions.
DNA and RNA are both polymers that contains phosphate backbone and four different bases. RNA has uracil as a base, a part from DNA with thymine, correspondingly.RNA has a ribose that links the phosphates and a base, meanwhile DNA's nucleotides include deoxyribose instead. Therefore, DNA is considered to be more stabile and favourable for genetic information maintenance. Deoxyribose sugar in DNA is less reactive because of C-H bonds. DNA is stable in alkaline conditions. DNA has smaller grooves where the damaging enzyme can attach which makes it harder for the enzyme to attack DNA. Ribose sugar is more reactive because of C-OH (hydroxyl) bonds. So, RNA is not stable in alkaline conditions. RNA on the other hand has larger grooves which makes it easier to be attacked by enzymes.
The structures of DNA and RNA permit them to perform their functions. DNA is focused on the long-term storage and reproduction of genetic material. RNA serves as a shattle between DNA and ribosomes: it transfers the genetic code from DNA in nucleus to create proteins in cytoplasm.