The microorganisms occupy all parts of the biosphere comprising extreme conditions, for example, high and cold temperatures. As a result, most organisms will survive at temperatures below 0°C. Typically, their cells will not be destroyed by low temperatures. Although their metabolism will be reduced due to the inhibition of most biochemical reactions, they will survive to maintain their basic metabolic processes. As a result, low temperatures decrease the growth rate of bacteria, inhibit the activity of the enzymes, suppress the diffusion of nutrients and alter cell composition and density. To resist cold, microorganisms produce specific antifreeze compounds that increase the freezing point of water. Next, microorganisms change the composition of lipid membranes making them fluid enough to maintain integrity and permeability. As cold temperatures affect the growth of microorganisms, they adapt to the environment to survive.