which one of these scientific method steps that needs inductive reasoning?
C. researching the scientific literature
D. formulating the hypothesis
E. both B and D are correct
Inductive reasoning is "from the bottom up" approach: our observations and measurements may bring us to more general pattern. Deductive reasoning is "from the top down" approach: starting with a general idea/theory, we go down to the more specific. Explanation is based on thedeductive reasoning: using known theory, we explain why the things occur as they occur. Literature research is just gathering the information. Hypothesis is an educatedguess for observed phenomenon: to formulate it, we need inductive reasoning on the basis ofgathered information. Inductive together withdeductive reasoning are two ways to reach the conclusion. Not always all experimental results could be explained, not all experiments could be performed, so conclusion usually needs both inductive and deductive reasoning. So, formulating the hypothesis and conclusion need inductive reasoning. Thus, the correct answer is E