Write short and precise answers to the following questions
1. What is character?-any distinction of the same member of different taxa in which one or two members of different taxonomy agree but disagree with members belonging to the different taxonomy group.
2. What is a character state? The state of a homological instance where when two or more organisms share origin but in the absence of their common ancestors
3. What is convergent evolution? Single evolution of one same feature in other different lineages of different epoch times.
4. What is parallel evolution? Where two species with the same gentry have similar characteristics by ancestry
5. What is the difference between parallel and convergent evolution? Convergent evolution involves the similarity in descendants having the same resemblance while parallel convergence involves the ability of two or more species to possess the same lineage of ancestry resulting from initial traits.
6. In cladistics classification conflicts that might arise in the construction of cladogram are solved by the rule of parsimony. What is the Rule of parsimony? It simply means the argument that fits and explanation deems to be the precise one.
7. What is the difference between a homologous feature and analogous features? .homologous share the same features be it bones or embryo while analogous only share the same functions of the embryo or muscle
8. According to cladistics classification, two organisms are closely related if they do have derived and shared characters.
a) What is derived and shared characters mean? –derived characters have over a long time evolved with the time and conditions giving rise to new traits of lineage while the shared character is where two different characters share the same line of ancestors and can influence a different organism in another group.
b) How is possible to identify either a character is derived or primitive? Primitive characters do not possess inherited traits while the derived characters fully possess the inherited traits.