Answer to Question #165456 in Biology for Adnan Hussain

Question #165456

Mitochondria is the powerhouse of a cell. How does mitochondria respond to cellular adaptation and injury? You are required to write the response of mitochondria in both Adaptation and Injury. State clearly whatever reaction you will write and don’t mix the reactions. Write under proper headings.

Expert's answer

Adaptation. Mitochondria drive cellular adaptation to stress by retro-communicating with the nucleus. This process is known as the mitochondrial retrograde response and is induced by mitochondrial dysfunction. During conditions of compromised mitochondrial function, there are shifts in the ratio of adenine nucleotides and the best characterised cellular adaptation of an increased AMP/ATP ratio. In addition to changes in ATP and nutrient intermediates, alterations in oxidative phosphorylation can induce a stress response via changes in membrane potential. Next, the changes in metabolism and oxygen consumption potential lead to the increased production of reactive oxygen species.

Injury. Cellular injury mostly occurs as a result of the energetic failure. The lack of oxygen blocks the mitochondrial respiration and anaerobic metabolism. The processes activate the signalling pathways in mitochondria that induce cellular apoptosis and elimination of the injured cell to avoid further spreading of the damaging effect.

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