Answer to Question #134885 in Biology for Galata

Question #134885
1, Cytology is the study of cell structure and function. What is the importance of studying Cytology for health science students?
Describe the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure, how it is organized ( built) and the function of each of the components of the cell membrane
Expert's answer

Cytology describes the molecular mechanisms of normal and pathological processes that occur in the cell. Each cell is a functional and structural unit of the organism and its parts - tissues and organs. As a result, studying cytology can help to distinguish normal and affected cells, and identify the cause of the disease at the cellular level. Indeed, numerous diseases are caused by abnormal processes that occur inside cells.

According to the fluid mosaic model, the membrane consists of two lipid layers. Two layers interact via hydrophobic tails of lipids whereas hydrophilic components of lipid molecules interact with water solutions - cell cytoplasm and extracellular space. Some proteins associate with membranes using their hydrophobic residues. In particular, transmembrane proteins cross lipid membrane, other proteins are associated only with one side of the lipid bilayer interaction only with cytoplasm or extracellular space. Some proteins might be modified with carbohydrates. Lipids form a barrier between the cell and the extracellular space limiting the penetration of ions and water-soluble molecules. Transmembrane protein form channels and pores that participate in the transportation of multiple substances inside and outside the cell. Other proteins serve receptors or adhesion molecules providing the interaction between the cell and the components of the extracellular space.

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