Dysregulation of the cell cycle may result in two major consequences: cell death or abnormal cell growth and proliferation. In particular, dysregulation of the cell cycle may lead to the activation of proteins that activate programmed cell death - apoptosis. The process ensures that the affected cell will be eliminated and will not lead to further abnormalities in tissues. On the other hand, dysregulation of the cell cycle may lead to overactivation of cell proliferation resulting in rapid cell growth and an increase in the number of cells. This process causes the formation of malignancies - abnormal and uncontrolled proliferation, invasion, and migration of cells resulting in their immortalization.