A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of agene.There are many different ways that DNA can be changed,resulting in different types of mutation. Here is a quick summary of a few of these: - A substitution is a mutation that exchanges one basefor another (i.e., a change in a single "chemical letter" such as switching an A to a G). - Insertions are mutations in which extra base pairs areinserted into a new place in the DNA. - Deletions are mutations in which a section of DNA islost, or deleted. - Duplication consists of a piece of DNA that isabnormally copied one or more times. This type of mutation may alter the function of the resulting protein. - Frameshift - since protein-coding DNA is divided intocodons three bases long, insertions and deletions can alter a gene so that its message is no longer correctly parsed. - The repeat expansion is a mutation that increases thenumber of times that the short DNA sequence is repeated.