Answer to Question #189901 in Molecular Biology for Misbah

Question #189901

Suppose we have a genomic DNA of 1000 kb. It gives two products: 1000 kb product and 200 kb product. What can you infer about the nucleic acid nature of each product? Which process will give the 1000 kb product and which will generate the 200 kb product

Expert's answer


Nucleic acid is a type of macromolecule that can be found in all cells and viruses. RNA participates in protein synthesis while DNA encodes the details the cell requires to produce proteins.

Nucleic acids are made up of long chainlike molecules composed of a series of virtually identical building blocks called nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogen-containing aromatic base attached to a five-carbon sugar, which is in turn attached to a phosphate group.

DNA is organized into long structures called chromosomes inside cells. These chromosomes are duplicated during cell division as part of the DNA replication process, giving each cell its own full set of chromosomes. Chromatin proteins, such as histones, compress and organize DNA within chromosomes. These compact structures help monitor which parts of the DNA are transcribed by guiding the interactions between DNA and other proteins.

DNA is made up of two long polymers of simple units called nucleotides, which have sugar and phosphate groups as backbones and are bound by ester bonds. These two strands are running in opposite directions. Nucleobases are one of four types of molecules that are attached to each sugar. Information is encoded by the sequence of these four nucleobases along the backbone. The genetic code, which determines the sequence of amino acids within proteins, is used to read this data. The code is read by copying stretches of DNA into the related nucleic acid RNA in a process called transcription.

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